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Call for Papers

(Deadline 31 October 2023)

The LIMES XXVI Scientific Committee is pleased to invite you to submit proposals for conference papers as well as posters.

Proposals should preferably use the form we prepared, available in pdf or Word format:
Limes 26 Call for Papers PDF
Limes 26 Call for Papers WORD

  • Please make sure to state the session number (on the left hand side in the following table) as well as the session title.
    For a better overview, the sessions have been grouped in general themes in the table below, but these are preliminary and need not be stated in the paper proposal.
  • Proposing a poster for one of the two poster sessions, please also use the Call for Papers form.

The proposals should be submitted to: limes2024@uw.edu.pl

The proposals will be forwarded to the relevant session organisers. Please note that it has been decided that a minimum of four (4) paper proposals are mandatory for a session to be implemented during the 26th Limes Congress. Moreover, as organizers, we reserve the right to suggest the merging of sessions, if they are related and the number of paper proposals should be low.

Regarding the programme of the Congress, technical questions as well as the costs, we will be updating our homepage throughout July with more information.

Deadline: The deadline for the submission of paper/poster proposals is 31 October 2023 at the latest.

Questions? Please contact us at: limes2024@uw.edu.pl


26th Limes Congress, Batumi, Georgia

8.-14. September 2024

Conference sessions 

Theme: Regions

No. Session title Organiser(s)


Over the sea and far away. Roman garrisons and Roman influences in the Southern Caucasus

Radosław Karasiewicz-Szczypiorski, Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology,
University of Warsaw
Emzar Kakhidze,
Batumi Archaeological Museum
Piotr Jaworski,
Faculty of Archaeology, University of Warsaw
The last 10 years have been a period of intensive research by the Polish-Georgian expedition at the Roman fort of Apsaros. The anniversary session will present the discoveries made during this project. The presenters also invite researchers working at other sites in the region where traces of Roman military presence have been discovered to present the results of their research.


No. Session title Organiser(s)


Between Danube and Bosporus. Roman military presence in Scythia and Taurica

Radosław Karasiewicz-Szczypiorski,
Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology, University of Warsaw
Oleg Saveliev
Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Science of Ukraine
Radosław Gawroński,
Institute of Archaeology, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw
Despite the war, scholars are continuing to compile data from earlier research at sites such as Olbia, Tyras, Chersonesos Taurica and others. Some discoveries are related to the Roman military presence in the aforementioned Greek cities and also in their rural territories (chorai) and nearby barbaricum areas. The presenters invite primarily Ukrainian archaeologists and representatives of international projects carried out in Ukraine to present their findings.


No. Session title Organiser(s)


New Research on the eastern Roman frontier – Southern Pontos, Cappadocia, and the Upper Euphrates Valley

Julia M. Koch
Institute of Classics, University of Giessen, Germany
Şahin Yıldırım
Department of Art History, Bartın University, Turkiye
In Roman frontier studies the southern Pontos region, Cappadocia, and the Upper Euphrates Valley are still perceived as terra incognita with only occasional work formerly undertaken on the Euphrates frontier, the Pontic fleet, and on funerary and honorific monuments dedicated to members of the Roman army. In the recent past, however, new archaeological research has substantially enhanced our knowledge of Roman military architecture and of the local communities living along the southern Pontic frontier, the Cappadocian and the Upper Euphrates limites.
In this session we invite contributions focusing on Roman military sites along the eastern frontier in modern Turkiye and the impact of the Roman army on local communities dwelling in its hinterland. We also encourage new approaches in visual/material culture studies that assess Roman Imperial geopolitics in establishing and securing the Roman frontiers in northern and eastern Asia Minor, and those presenting fresh insights into the archaeology of the limes within the territory of the Pontic kingdom ruled by Mithradates VI, greatest enemy of Rome, until 63 B.C.


No. Session title Organiser(s)


Buffer zones in archaeology

Krzysztof Narloch
Antiquity of Southeastern Europe Research Centre, University of Warsaw
Oliva Menozzi
University G.d’Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara
The concept of ‘buffer zone’ has been created originally intending as area that lies between two or more bodies of land, usually separating different forms of political, military or social organization. At the same time, in many cases it cannot be considered just as a neutral zone, or as a boundary line or no-man’s land.  This concept of buffer zones can be easily adapted to the Roman Limes, in term of boundary lands with osmotic and reciprocal social, religious, economic contacts, as lands of meetings, exchanges but also military or tribal clashes. In these lands, all interested parties were active in various ways strengthening their position or weakening the power of their opponents.
Our world is currently in the process of changing traditional zones of influence. Political events are causing the creation of new buffer zones, and International bodies as UN and UNESCO are using the ‘buffer zones’ in order to defend cultural heritage, from different kinds of threats. Often these ancient and modern ‘kinds of limes’ see destruction, looting, illicit trafficking of antiquities. We therefore encourage participants to this session, to share experiences and results of researches carried out on both ancient and modern buffer zones.


No. Session title Organiser(s)


Periphery under pressure… redefining the late phase of the Roman limes in its arid borderlands

Tomasz Waliszewski,
University of Warsaw
Anna-Katharina Rieger,
University of Graz
When the regions in Northern Africa and in Arabia became parts of the Roman Empire the political and socio-cultural circumstances differed in each of these regions: In terms of socio-political and socio-cultural entities the provinces Africa, Cyrenaica, Aegyptus, Arabia, and Syria bordered to very different groups such as Saharan people, Arabs, or Parthians and Sassanids. However, the desert or steppe environment at their southern or eastern borders were the comparable, determined by the scarcity of the resources of water and arable soil.
We are interested in defining models of the functioning of these politically and ecologically marginal zones and tracing their evolution in order to better understand the changes taking place in these sensitive areas for the history of the Mediterranean. At the beginning of the first millennium C.E., they were the border area between the world of the Greco-Roman oikumene and Western Asian and Saharan communities with also mobile life-strategies. In the east, these areas would later become the zone separating the Christian world from the Islamic world.
Focusing on these marginal, arid zones at the borders of the Roman Empire in North Africa, Arabia and the Near East the session aims at problematising the relation of arid landscapes, scarce resources, local socio-economic strategies to strategic necessities, supplies and the general organisation of the Roman limes. The focus lies on the period from the 3rd to the 6th c. CE and invites contributions from archaeology and landscape archaeology as well as ancient history and epigraphy, but also from scholars from other disciplines like for instance environmental studies.
To analyse this relation of arid landscapes and the Roman limes, the contributions to this session will address the following questions, which cover infrastructural, economical and conceptual/comparative issues:
• How did local communities and military personnel deal with resource scarcity (water and soil) and how did they organise its use and distribution?
• What kind of interaction with local communities and their life-strategies took place?
• What impact did Roman presence have on socio-spatial and socio-economic organisation of the landscape?
• What are the implications of the marginal landscapes for the structures and institution of the border organisation?
• Are the socio-political and -cultural differences in the Near East and North Africa in the appearances of the limites reflected and if yes, in what sense?
• What implications do concepts of space, connectivity, mobility, which differ between a Mediterranean Empire and desert dwellers, have on the conception of a frontier and pertaining structures and institutions?
Embracing a wide range of regions and a historical period of fundamental socio-political changes, the session is an attempt to comparatively analyse the factor of marginality and aridity against the backdrop of different source material and methodologies, to obtain a clear view on arid landscapes and the borders of the Roman Empire.


No. Session title Organiser(s)


Rethinking Borderlands: Examining the Outer Hinterlands of the Roman Empire

Manuel Fernández-Götz,
University of Edinburgh
Dominik Maschek,
Leibniz-Zentrum für Archäologie & Universität Trier
The impact of the Roman Empire went well beyond its direct political borders. In this sense, an understanding of frontier territories as ‘borderlands’ allows us to broaden our perspectives by taking into account not only the military installations that marked the limits of the Roman Empire, but also incorporating substantial inner and outer hinterlands. This includes the indigenous evidence beyond the areas directly controlled by the Roman state, looking for evidence of direct and indirect Roman influence in the short-, medium-, and long-term. Examples can include, but are not limited to, the establishment of ‘buffer zones’ and client kingdoms, changes in local social and economic structures due to interaction with Rome, or episodes of resistance that led to an increased militarisation of indigenous societies.
In this session, we invite contributions that focus on the study of the outer hinterlands of the Limes, i.e. the territories located immediately outside the Roman frontier installations. In particular, we welcome papers that address one or several of the following topics: 1) Roman objects in indigenous contexts (e.g. metalwork, fine-ware pottery, glass) and their significance, (re)interpretation, and impact within local communities; 2) indigenous settlement patterns and land use strategies in the hinterland of the Limes; 3) Roman military installations outside the established borders of the Empire (e.g. temporary camps, outposts); and 4) Roman conflict evidence outside the Limes (e.g. battlefields in non-conquered territories, destruction horizons of indigenous settlements).


No. Session title Organiser(s)


Sea to Sea. Comparative approaches to the study of the Black Sea and North Sea Roman-period frontier archaeology

Tom Hazenberg / Harry van Enckevort / Tatiana Ivleva/ Mark Driessen / Carol van Driel-Murray / Erik Graafstal
The aim of the session is to map similarities and differences in the archaeology, geography and the study of coastal communities under the shadow of the Roman army. Attention will also be paid to the comparison how rivers and riverine borders, such as Danube and Rhine, contributed to enhancing the connectivity between the delta and hinterland, and connections between two sides of the seashores, north-south/east-west shores.


No. Session title Organiser(s)


Ripae – Roman River Frontiers and their Control

Gerald Grabherr,
University of Innsbruck
Stefan Traxler,
Upper Austria Landes-Kultur GmbH
In the north and north-east of the Imperium Romanum, its borders largely run along main river courses. These borders, called ripae by Rome, pose different challenges to control and, if necessary, defence than limites – or land borders – but also have recognisable advantages in terms of supply and the moving of troops. The aim of the session is to shed light diachronically on the special characteristics of these river borders with regard to legionary fortresses, auxiliary camps and watchtowers as well as harbour facilities.
These questions are also of particular interest because a research framework for the UNESCO World Heritage Danube Limes is currently being worked on, in which networking with other river boundaries will of course also play an important role.



No. Session title Organiser(s)


Roman limes of Mauretania Tingitana. Moroccan part of the World Heritage

Aomar Akerraz,
INSAP, Rabat, Maroc
Maciej Czapski,
Universiy of Warsaw
The Roman province of Maurétanie tingitana was a special region of the ancient world. Isolated from the rest of Roman North Africa by natural obstacles in the form of mountain ranges (Atlas and Rif), this part of the Roman world has developed interesting solutions in the field of defense of its borders. Numerous testimonies of ancient authors and epigraphic make it possible to perceive the relations of the Roman administration with the local communities (Baquates, Bavares, Macennites, Autololes, Zegrenses and others). Turbulent moments in common relations led to the need to secure borders through the construction of camps, forts and watchtowers.
Undoubtedly, the African provinces of the Roman Empire have much to contribute to the question of border control. Vast frontier territories through various topographical terrain led the Roman army to use original solutions. The system of defense of borders is recognized by research on auxiliary forts and research on the existence and functioning of the watchtower system, as well as research on urban fortification.
We invite you to present the results of the research missions located in the Kingdom of Morocco. Presentations of excavation results, field surveys and theoretical considerations on the limes of the province of Mauritania tingitane are welcome. The session will provide an opportunity for interesting discussions on the results of archaeological, epigraphic, numismatic, historical and other studies that will help to better understand the Roman presence on the African borders of the Empire.
La province romaine de Maurétanie tingitana était une région  particuličre du monde antique. Isolée du reste de l’Afrique du Nord romaine par des obstacles naturels sous forme de chaînes de montagnes (Atlas et Rif), cette lontaine contrée du monde romain a développé des solutions intéressantes dans le domaine de la défense de ses frontičres. De nombreux témoignages d’auteurs anciens et épigraphiques permettent de percevoir les relations l’administration romaine avec les communautés locales (Baquates, Bavares, Macennites, Autololes, Zegrenses et d’autres). Des moments turbulents des relations communes ont provoqué la nécessité de sécuriser les frontičres par la constructions de camps, de fortins et de tours de guet.
Sans aucun doute, les provinces africaines de l’Empire romain ont beaucoup ŕ apporter ŕ la question du contrôle des frontičres. De vastes territoires frontaliers ŕ travers des terrains topographiques divers ont amené l’armée romaine ŕ utiliser  des solutions originales. Le systčme de défense des frontičres est reconnu par la recherche sur les forts auxiliaires et la recherche sur l’existence et le fonctionnement du systčme de tour de guet, ainsi que la recherche sur la fortification urbaine.
Nous vous invitons les intéressés ŕ présenter les résultats des missions de recherche localisées au Royaume du Maroc. Les présentations des résultats des fouilles, des prospections sur le terrain et des considérations théoriques sur les limes de la province de Mauritanie tingitane sont les bienvenues. La session sera l’occasion de discussions intéressantes sur les résultats des études archéologiques, épigraphiques, numismatiques, historiques et autres, qui aideront ŕ mieux comprendre la présence romaine aux frontičres africaines de l’Empire.

Theme: New technologies and reconstructions

No. Session title Organiser(s)


Back to the drawing board – new approaches, concepts and documentation methods for studies on the Roman frontier fortifications

Piotr Zakrzewski,
Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology, University of Warsaw
Ivan Bogdanović,
Institute of Archaeology, Belgrade, Serbia
From a very simple to an extensive and complex fortification systems – defensive structures are one of the most common remains found on the Roman limes archaeological sites. The level of their complexity and extent could resemble not only the tactical capabilities and siege techniques (poliorcetics), or the degree of a potential attack risk, but also indicate the overall state of the architectural design and the developed building techniques.
While the Roman limes fortifications were undoubtedly diverse constructions, they also had many common denominators, from the obvious ones such as their layout and planning, to the more prosaic concerning construction techniques and building materials. At the same time, it should be noted that the Roman defensive systems were often very heterogeneous and, contrary to obvious, this was not always the result of the different chronology of their construction or location in a given section of the limes. Moreover, many of them also had clear differences within their own fortification systems, which were represented by the different execution of the individual defensive works.
The diversity of the defense structures, their numerous functions that were not only strictly military and the multitude of factors that influenced their shape, size and course show how interdisciplinary and multifaceted the studies devoted to them should be. In recent years, the field of research related to fortifications has been significantly expanded. This trend can be explained inter alia by the development of advanced documentation methods and the increased availability of modern survey instruments, aerial and satellite photographs and other, all of which undoubtedly facilitate fieldwork associated with such extensive structures. Another reason can be attributed to the change in the way they are perceived by researchers, who now commonly see fortifications as a valuable source of information also about the cultural history of a site or region.
This session aims to explore topics in methodology, new documentation techniques, tools and software used during and after archaeological works carried out on the Roman frontier fortifications. We particularly invite papers based on case studies.
No. Session title Organiser(s)


If it is buried it is safe? The global impact of Climate change on the buried archaeology of the limes

Andrew Birley,
The Vindolanda Trust
Gillian Taylor,
Teesside University
No ancient monument more powerfully epitomises the challenges archaeologists and scholars face with impact of global climate than the limes of the Roman Empire. Its diverse landscapes, from the deserts of North Africa and the Middle East to the mountains and floodplains in Europe, are rapidly changing and each part of the frontier faces its own specific threats.   From the care of physical monuments to the museums and galleries which hold precious collections of material culture, extreme weather events and global climate change is an enemy that the limes was not designed to face. For example: the increasing intensity of summer heatwaves may also changing the patterns of engagement at sites. Limiting the window of time in which field work can take place and, in some cases, what might be achieved or expected to have survived in the ground.
This threat challenges the very foundations of some of our assumptions about the state of archaeological deposits. The old and worn archaeological phrase which states ‘if it is buried it is safe’ may be less secure than it has ever been.   This session invites papers from across the limes to profile the challenges colleagues face and the strategies that have been employed to combat this threat. Strategies may involved data collection from below the ground as well as the changing landscapes above it. Above all, this the session celebrates the diversity of the archaeology of the frontiers of the Roman Empire and fosters collaboration in securing its future.
No. Session title Organiser(s)


Putting 3D imaging to work on the Roman frontiers: Next steps in visualizing archaeology and heritage

Elizabeth Greene,
University of Western Ontario
Barbara Birley,
The Vindolanda Trust
The use of 3D imaging has been common on archaeological excavations and in museums for at least a decade and most excavation teams have at least some capacity in this sphere. Basic photogrammetry used during excavations and 3D modelling in heritage presentation have become more accessible and affordable in recent years, increasing the use of these techniques. However, this work often culminates in high-quality visualizations with archival goals, while stopping short of realizing the full potential of 3D imaging to enhance data and produce knowledge in its own right. Recently more specialized strategies using, for example, morphological residual modeling, structured light scanning, or MicroCT analysis (among many others) have revealed details of objects that cannot be seen by the human eye, whether by enhancing surface details or erasing the walls of an object itself. This session aims to explore the next phase of 3D imaging in archaeology, as well as the ethics surrounding the use of computer-based visualizations in archaeology and cultural heritage, and associated issues such as storage and future-proofing 3D data. We aim to attract papers that present innovative and groundbreaking work in 3D imaging that is currently underway and presentations on new and emerging technologies, even if still in experimental stages of investigation and employment.
No. Session title Organiser(s)


Virtual Frontiers

Dr Nigel Mills,
Heritage Consultant
Veronika Fischer,
Bayerisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege
Dr Snežana Golubović,
Deputy Director, Viminacium
Erik Dobat,
Managing Director, Edufilm and Media Company
In this session we wish to explore how digital and multimedia techniques and applications are being used in different visitor locations across the Roman Frontiers to bring the Roman past to life for visitors. Techniques could include apps, virtual reality, augmented reality, audio and visual solutions, 3D modelling etc. Contributions must focus on techniques and applications for public presentation of archaeological sites, museums and landscapes (i.e. not primarily for research or conservation purposes). As well as illustrating the techniques used, contributions should explore as many as possible of the following questions:
• Who was involved in making the decisions to use the particular techniques selected? (In particular, were potential end-users involved?)
• Why was it decided to use the particular techniques selected?
• How do the applications work with and complement the broader strategy for public presentation across the site/location?
• Who are the applications designed for (local people, tourists, academics?)
• How much time and research went into developing the content for the applications and how much did it all cost?
• Who was involved in developing the content? (In particular, were potential end-users involved?)
• How were issues of authenticity addressed?
• What measures have been taken to ensure long term sustainability and maintenance of both the application technology and of content?
• Were the applications tested with potential end-users during development, and if so, what testing was done and how did this influence the final product?
• Have the applications been evaluated following development, and what has been the feedback?
N.B. we will NOT accept contributions that focus purely on the techniques used and do not address at least some of above questions, especially the questions concerned with involvement, testing and evaluation with potential end-users.
Contributors to this session are allowed to give one additional paper in another session at the congress.
No. Session title Organiser(s)


Geophysical prospections in Roman border regions – sharing technical knowhow and encouraging sustainable knowledge transfer

Nikola  Babucic,
University of Hamburg
Martina Seifert,
University of Hamburg
The scientific investigation of Roman fortifications and settlements has experienced a massive upward trend in recent decades due to the increase in technical innovations in the field of prospecting, remote sensing, and data analysis. The application of geophysical equipment supported by the analysis of satellite imagery, LIDAR scans and self-generated elevation models has become the standard tool in the initial exploration and further investigation of archaeological sites. Verifying excavations and modern documentation methods using SFM and digital portal GIS platforms have become increasingly popular in recent years, with raw data and results flowing more and more frequently into web-based geo-information systems. However, these mostly international interdisciplinary projects often developed their individual workflows in field research as well as in post-processing, without having a sustainable impact in the educational field or offering standardized workflows or interpretation models.
This session would like to invite papers that include a variety of “new standard methods” and encourage a discussion on best practice in the field with a focus on the sustainable transfer of knowledge for archaeologists.

Theme: Limes theory

No. Session title Organiser(s)


The Roman Army Beyond the Provinces

Michael A. Speidel,
University of Zurich
The Roman imperial army of the first three centuries AD, at times, entertained both temporary and (more or less) permanent installations beyond the outer borders of its provinces. This section aims to both make the existence of such installations more widely known as well as their their economic, political, military, and social contexts.
No. Session title Organiser(s)


What has a Roman fort ever done for us? Social and spatial identities on the frontier

Part One: Unwashed barbarians and murdering soldiers. Frontier´s society between self-perception and propaganda
Part Two: More than walls, gates, and towers? Space and place around the fort
Martina Meyr,
Stadt Rottweil / Städtische Museen
Christof Flügel,
Bayerisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege
Landesstelle für die nichtstaatlichen Museen in Bayern
Catherine Teitz,
Stanford University Department of Classics
What has a Roman fort ever done for us? Social and spatial identities on the frontier
After an extended discussion during the session “Tales of Glory – Narratives of Roman Victory” at the Limes Congress 2022 at Nijmegen we were convinced that we have to pursue this theme further. We would like to open discussion about identity on the frontier, as understood through both social and spatial lenses. Research on frontier sites can easily focus on specific populations, military organization, administrative needs, and technical capacity. We are interested in the broader lived experience around the fort, how it was perceived and portrayed by different groups, and how it changed over time. These sessions will bring together sites, sources, and evidence from across the limes. We aim to start a discussion that encompasses many different perspectives on the frontier.
Part One: Unwashed barbarians and murdering soldiers? Frontier society between self-perception and propaganda
In this session, we want to explore manifestations of identity on the frontier. The main question is how the different groups of the Roman population, soldiers, Roman and native civilians, perceived the others. How did interaction occur, adopting or imposing new habits and maintaining old ones? What was the relative influence of a specific unit versus a fort’s location on identity? What effects did Roman settlement policy have on life at the frontier? What was the relationship between civilians and the soldiers in the adjacent forts? Military diplomas speak to relationships between soldiers and Roman or local women; how else might connections be seen? How much do we know, for example, from written sources if there were times when the provincials complained about economic pressure caused by military relocations. On the other hand, one might ask, how the local population responded to plundering and looting by the army and how relations between the victorious Roman army and the defeated continued in the aftermath of war.
Part Two: More than walls, gates, and towers? Space and place around the fort
This session expands the earlier discussions from social perceptions to spatial influences on identity. The architecture of the fort provides a physical framework for life on the frontier, and its structural elements can have specifically defined roles. Research has focused on the military purposes for the space. However, with the complex community living both inside and outside the walls, it is necessary to consider how else the architecture might have been used and who else might have been present. In addition to the established definitions for the structures within a fort, what are the possibilities for their adaptive reuse? One avenue is to consider forts as urban space in addition to military ones. How might that influence spatial and structural interpretations? What are other approaches and sources of evidence for the study of space in frontier sites? Looking closely at the relationship between military identity and conscious expression, how does that translate into building programs within and beyond the fort walls? Who are the audiences and how do they respond?
No. Session title Organiser(s)


Fringe in the Frontiers? Ancient and modern aspects of absurdity, humour, and the bizarre

Rob Collins,
Newcastle University
Simon Sulk,
Bayerisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege
The Frontiers of the Roman Empire inspire awe from modern audiences due to the monumentality of archaeological remains, and the many researchers and communicators of Roman frontiers work hard to convey rigorous scientific information. But life is not always serious or scientific, whether in the past or present. In this regard, it is important not only to acknowledge, but to embrace the spectrum of absurdity, humour, and bizarreness that is encountered in the ancient world as well as in undertaking research and public engagements. For example, consider the media coverage in recent years of discoveries of carved phalli from Vindolanda, or the ‘fringe’ theories that are presented to explain ‘mysteries’ associated with the Roman frontiers and their soldiers.
What is based in fact, and what is entirely fictious? Can we also find examples of Roman or barbarian humour in our archaeologies? Alternatively, how has the work of frontier scholars been employed for comedic purpose in modern society, for example in Monty Python’s Life of Brian? Sitting on the border of emotions history and reception of the Classics, this session is the first attempt to explicitly address and consider the use and perception of humour in Roman frontier studies.
No. Session title Organiser(s)


Death and burial along the limes

Erik Timmerman,
University of Bonn, Germany
Jana Wertz,
University of Bonn, Germany
Burials are among the most important sources of information regarding the people who lived along the Roman frontier. As the number of excavated cemeteries has increased significantly in recent decades, a wealth of new data has become available. This will help gain a lot of knowledge about the deceased and the funerary rituals that were practiced. At the same time, novel methodological approaches have allowed excavated material to be analysed in completely new ways. For instance, scientific analyses of (cremated) human bone and grave goods can provide important information on health, diet, and mobility of ancient populations and the exchange networks to which they had access. As a result, questions can now be asked that, until recently, seemed impossible to answer.
With this session, we want to provide a platform to reflect on these developments. We welcome contributions on a variety of topics relating to death and burial. These could include studies of entire cemeteries, but also specialised analyses of bone material, particular types of grave goods, ritual offerings, grave structures and monuments, etc. Presentations on theoretical and methodological approaches and overarching syntheses on broad topics or with a large (supra)regional scope are especially desirable. Furthermore, we will strive to include contributions from as many different parts of the Roman Empire as possible. Indeed, we hope that this will allow us to identify and explain local and regional differences and similarities. When all of this is combined, it will certainly lead to fruitful discussions and a better understanding of the inhabitants of the frontier zone and their burial rites.
No. Session title Organiser(s)


Late Antique defensive construction programmes, theorisation, design, financing, implementation and combat testing… Late Antiquity as an apotheosis of poliorcetics

Brahim Mbarek,
ÉVEHA; Université de Strasbourg (UMR 7044)
Dan Aparaschivei,
Iasi Institute of Archeology of the Romanian Academy
If there is one field where the transition from the High to the Late Roman Empire is significantly visible, it is the field of military architecture. Even though its evolution is gradual, the 3rd – 5th century AD interval (in the Western Empire), or the 3rd-7th century one (in the Eastern Empire), we can nevertheless witness a large number of adaptations of previous paradigms to the new realities. This is also a period of innovations and inventions, in which various technical and functional particularities are emerging, in many areas. Their implementation responds to needs and programs launched at different administrative levels, from the imperial court for the most important ones to the most local initiatives, via diocesan or provincial officials. Some of these projects are the result of programs carefully calibrated before their execution, others are the result of more or less marked empiricism.
The study of Late Antiquity fortifications has for long highlighted some regional specifications, such as the use of consistent fortification plans, the association of various tower forms according to regular patterns, or clear predominances of some architectural shapes. The present session aims to bring together researchers who wish to present and review some of these particularities, while seeking, as far as possible, to place them in a framework based on the decision-making level : Imperial, diocesian, provincial, local. A gathering of all these information could to be bring to light a clearer vision in the process of building at that times. Indeed, comparisons could be made between different kinds of building programs or simply between various periods of Late Antiquity. To what extent one can identify the various decision makers, the institutions or persons in charge of the implementation? Is it possible to draw organisational patterns of late Roman authority in the field of territorial defence? Are these patterns homogeneous, and how do they evolve in space and time? Can one establish links between the construction of fortifications, on any scale, and the organisation of the military administration?
These are all the questions we would like to address by intersecting and converging the views of scholars from a variety of geographical and chronological backgrounds, including historians, archaeologists, epigraphists and architects…
No. Session title Organiser(s)


Roman-Barbarian Interaction. Materialising diplomacy, East and West. Comparing Roman diplomacy across different parts of the limes.

Szilvia Bíró,
Museum Savaria / iseum savariense, HU
Fraser Hunter,
National Museum of Scotland, UK
Thomas Grane,
National Museum of Denmark, DK
Thomas Schierl,
WiBA – Wissenschaftliche Baugrund-Archäologie GmbH, DE
Diplomacy is and was an essential part of political interaction between different entities. It helped to communicate interests or positions and was used to negotiate compromises, including compensations at different levels. Rome used a broad spectrum of instruments like political or military support, gifts or money, to manipulate neighbours or political partners.
Continuing our thematic approach to Roman-barbarian relations, we would like to use the Limes congress’s visit to the Caucasus to explore regional and chronological patterns in Roman diplomatic efforts beyond the frontier. On the ancient territories of modern Georgia (Colchis, Iberia, Armenia, and Albania), more or less independent political entities on the north-east edge of the Empire, such mechanisms can be studied over the long term. Were similar approaches used in different areas? Or were they tailored according to local circumstances and cultural backgrounds? What results did diplomatic efforts have in different areas? Which objects were used in such contexts and what roles did they play?
We wish to look primarily at interpretations of archaeological evidence, using ancient literary sources as a guide or backdrop where available. Papers are welcomed that compare different areas beyond the frontier, compare different diplomatic phases in the same area, or offer good case studies of considering possible diplomatic approaches.
No. Session title Organiser(s)


One object, how many stories? The materiality of Roman Religion in the Roman Empire

Ljubica Perinić,
Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Anna Mech,
University od Warsaw
Roman religion was a complex system of beliefs and practices that evolved over centuries, and it included a wide range of cults and rituals that were centred around various gods and goddesses. The materiality of these cults refers to the physical objects and artifacts, such as temples, altars, and statues, that were used in the performance of these rituals. However, the substantiality of Roman cults was not limited only to them. Offerings of food, wine, and prayers were also an important part of religious practice. Therefore, this session explores the materiality of Roman religion, above all at the limes, but also in the provinces, through a range of methodological approaches.
Through ‘traditional’ archaeological, theoretical, sensory, epigraphic, art historical methods, this session aims to offer insights into the role of material culture in the practice and expression of Roman religion. We will explore how religious objects, images, and spaces served as powerful tools for communicating ideas, shaping social relations, and expressing identity. Our intention also is to investigate how the manifestation of religious beliefs and rituals throughout the vast and diverse territory of the Roman Empire, i.e., the material world of religion, shaped religious practices and beliefs, reflecting broader social, political, and economic trends. Overall, the materiality of Roman cults was an important aspect of their efficacy and effectiveness and played a vital role in the religious life of the people of Roman Empire.
We invite scholars working in these and related fields to submit papers that explore temples and shrines, sacrifices, amulets and talismans, festivals and feasts, divination of Roman religion in the Roman Empire and to engage in a lively discussion of the many fascinating questions and challenges that arise from this rich and complex topic.
No. Session title Organiser(s)


Breaking free of the margins? Inclusivity and Decolonisation on the Limes

Philip Smither,
Portable Antiquities Scheme  philip.smither1@westberks.gov.uk
Zena Kamash,
Royal Holloway, University of London
With delegates coming from a wide range of countries and academic backgrounds, the Limes Congress is a great place for collaboration and progressive agendas. While the Limes has made progress in its gender balance from the early conferences there is a continuing trend for an imbalance in geographical areas represented (Breeze et. al. 2022). This extends into areas of study traditionally seen as ‘male’ (e.g. forts) and ‘female’ (e.g material culture) (although there is improvement (Breeze et. al. 2022). Given that the Limes are by nature on the margins of the Empire, this conference is the ideal setting for a setting of what marginalisation in our discipline means and how the Limes Congress might contribute to increasing inclusivity and promoting decolonial agendas.
In the last decade there have been numerous calls to ‘decolonise’ academia, noting that all research comes from a position of bias rather than objectivity (Kamash 2021). It is important when studying the past that we are aware of our implicit biases. There is also a clear lack of BAME/BIPOC/global majority representation in Roman archaeology as a whole, not just at the Limes Congress. While Roman archaeology has been the preserve of white western culture, the lack of inclusivity fails to represent not only our current society but the diverse backgrounds of the Roman Empire.
There are a also number of challenges to Limes conference attendance (Breeze et. al 2022). Time, finances and family commitments etc. are all considerations when deciding to attend the conference. These challenges adversely affect those who identify as BAME/BIPOC as well as people with diverse abilities.
The session made up of presented papers and discussion groups, which aims to address how we can begin to host a more inclusive and accessible conference, as well as thinking more broadly about these issues and how they relate to Limes studies and Roman Archaeology more generally. Potential topics for discussion might include:
• Increasing representation of under-represented groups at all levels of the Limes Congress and beyond;
• Modes of research that promote inclusivity and decoloniality; E.g. how might Limes studies situate itself in broader discussions about and movements towards change?
• How to encourage a more diverse set of scholars to engage with Limes studies E.g. what are the links between how we teach the Limes and how we research the Limes?
• How diversifying our thinking about our discipline in the present might open up new lines of research about the past.
No. Session title Organiser(s)


Comparing imperial frontiers – Rome, Persia and China

David Brough,
Newcastle University, UK
Rob Collins,
Newcastle University, UK
Three empires of broadly comparable size, complexity, and chronology occupied vast swathes of land in Europe, North Africa, and Asia – the Roman Empire, the Persian Empire, and imperial China. Despite the unique cultural and
geographical circumstances of each of these empires, each shared the phenomenon of garrisoned frontiers, in which military forces and structures were positioned to guard and protect the imperial periphery from external peoples, the so-called ‘barbarians’. In fact, each of these empires frequently had to the deal with the same nomadic steppe cultures that spanned Eurasia. This session invites contributions from colleagues working on any aspect of Roman, Persian, or Chinese frontiers of the 2nd century BC to the 7th century AD, to present papers that will contribute to a broader comparative understanding, highlighting similarities, contrasts, and parallels.
No. Session title Organiser(s)

Rituals on the borders

Jason Lundock,
Full Sail University
Kaja Stemberger,
Flegar, PJP d.o.o.
Alessandra Esposito,
King’s College London
David Walsh,
Newcastle University
As a material representation of the attempt to introduce order and definition into one’s world, ritual practices can provide insights into both social and cosmological structures within a given cultural context. The Roman Empire, as a multi-cultural political union, offers a useful view into how diverse cultural traditions negotiate among each other to develop new concepts of identity and meaning through both inclusive and exclusive ritual behaviour. This panel will examine how ritual practices among the liminal zones of the Roman world may be used to examine how identity and community was negotiated and defined within these culturally diverse and fluid environments.  Drawing from current developments in the fields of psychology, anthropology, and sociology, the session will foster comparisons of Roman period ritual behaviours from inside and outside the borders, along the Limes. New discoveries in the field and fresh perspectives continue to deepen our understanding of the Roman period ritual landscape, its limits, and how it may relate to the creation of otherness.
Contributors are welcome to explore (but not limited to) the following topics:
– Rituals on the border, (g)local practices, the creation of others (either from inside or outside the Limes)
– Depositions and religious sites on the Limes and in nearby regions
– Across the border: comparative research of rituals inside and outside the Roman Empire
– Rituals related specifically to the army, creating and maintaining army identity through rituals
– Comparative research of Roman period and modern ritual practices in border areas
No. Session title Organiser(s)


Frontiers before frontiers: the non-linear age of “Fuzzy Borders”, access control and military hotspots

Christoph Rummel,
Römisch-Germanische Kommission, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Dr. Gabriele Rasbach,
Römisch-Germanische Kommission, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Sandra Schroer-Span,
Römisch-Germanische Kommission, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Traditionally, Roman Frontier Studies focus on the High Empire, studying the edge of the Roman World at the point of its greatest extent. In this, the focus lies on clearly defined frontier lines, often demarcated and made visible by physical infrastructure such as walls, ditches or palisades – or at least lines of forts connected with roads that conform to modern concepts of political borders or frontiers. Recent Congresses have seen a steady increase in sessions on late Roman phenomena, where such clear notions and definitions begin to blur, and challenged the often black and white, clear-cut traditional models of Roman Frontiers.
This sessions seeks to look at the other end of the chronological spectrum – the edges of the early Roman World during its phase of expansion. Roman Frontiers of the 1st century BC and 1st century AD were often not defined by linear features, but nonetheless there was an edge of Empire with a noteable military element to it. This edge, even though it shifted and moved with time, was defended and controlled, and served as a frontier zone just like the esatblished frontier line we all tend to focus on. Rather than offering a clear chronological frame, the session aims to study different regions of the Empire during this specific pre-linear “evolutionary phase” – e.g. Britain before the creation of Hadrian’s Wall, the Germanies before the establishment of any Limes, the Balkans before the Danube was developed into a linear frontier, the East before any of the military roads were created. We invite papers dealing with aspects of frontiers in any area of the Empire before the establishment of linear frontiers, in order to compare and contrast how Rome controlled and or defended the edge of its Empire before it gave it a formal and physical infrastructure and definition.

Theme: Equipment & small finds

No. Session title Organiser(s)


Arms, armour and other military equipment from the limes and beyond

Martijn A. Wijnhoven,
Institute of Archaeology Brno
Dr Balázs Komoróczy,
Czech Academy of Sciences
Warfare was an integral part of Roman history and a huge contributing factor to the spread of Roman culture over vast areas. The military equipment of its soldiers played a paramount role in warfare and the relationship with the peoples beyond the Roman frontiers.
This session addresses all type of papers concerning military equipment from the Roman world, covering the period from the 8th century BC to the reign of Justitian and, in addition to the Roman Empire itself, all neighbouring cultures interacting with it.
Additional Information: Many attendees of the Limes Congress also go to the Roman Military Equipment Conference (ROMEC). Given this overlap, the two conferences never take place in the same year. ROMEC always takes place one year after the Limes Congress. This cycle has been affected by Covid, postponing the last Limes Congress in Nijmegen from 2021 to 2022. Due to this change the last ROMEC took place in 2019 (Cologne/Bonn) and the subsequent conference will be in 2025 (Brno). In order to fill the gap of six years, we will organize a session dedicated to military equipment of the Romans and that of the peoples living beyond their borders.
No. Session title Organiser(s)


Hoarding on the Roman frontiers and…beyond. The interpretation of coin assemblies with and without archaeological contexts: military, civilian, and funerary

Cristian Gazdac,
University of Oxford, Ashmolean Museum
The Coin Hoards of the Roman Empire project (CHRE), an initiative of the Ashmolean Museum and the Oxford Roman Economy Project, University of Oxford (https://chre.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/), is supported by a continually growing network of international collaborators. It has created the largest database of Roman coin hoards from within and beyond the frontiers of the Roman Empire – from Scandinavia to China; from Poland and Ukraine to Sudan. The project has recently reached the milestone of 18,000 entries online, comprising more than 7,500,000 coins.
Generations of scholars have understood hoards through their own contemporary perceptions. Accumulations of coins found together were considered treasure and were associated with major historical events, no matter the original value of coins, their context, or the historical background. We attempt to identify patterns of human behaviour associated with accumulations of coin deposited in the course normal daily life as well as in times of turmoil, either side of the Roman frontier, and along trade routes connecting the Near-, Middle-, and Far East.
The aim is to present case-studies of hoarding drawing on various methodologies, with consideration of statistical approaches, archaeological contexts, hoard composition, and the like. The term ‘hoard’ comprises many categories, including pocket money, savings, votive offerings, ritual deposits, and bullion. Such considerations will create a differentiated picture of how ancient individuals regarded coinage.
No. Session title Organiser(s)


Sculptures and reliefs of the Roman military – New holistic and multi-perspectival  studies of finds in the social and contemporary context.

Dajana Ehlers,
University of Cologne
Sculptures and reliefs were an integral part of everyday life in antiquity. Both the material in which these were executed as the themes depicted vary greatly. While the objects could be made of marble, bronze or local stone, the subjects could range from gods and myths to ‘historical’ depictions and scenes of everyday life. Through analysing the material and the depicted subject matter as well as the iconography used in it, sculptures and reliefs provide an insight into the past of a particular region in a particular period. They enable us to draw conclusions on the interests and social status of (some of) the people, their cultural identity and religion.
While sculptures and reliefs are always an integral part of archaeological research into Roman cities and villas, finds in a military context have usually been less in the focus of archaeological research and have been treated as more of an interesting side aspect. However, when considered holistically, they offer opportunities for many in-depth questions. Why is the depicted legionary wearing exactly this equipment? Why was a statue of exactly this god erected at this military camp? What information do the material and the setting of the statue or relief offer, keeping in mind the period and region?
This session focuses on all sculptures and reliefs that can be explicitly assigned to a military context due to their location or accompanying inscriptions. The objects studied are understood as “carriers” of specific cultural statements, values and identities. In this way, the finds are not only analysed from an archaeological point of view, but also in the context of contemporary history. Further aspects are external influences, regional differences, recycling and reuse, different materials as well as content and context of (existing) inscriptions.
The aim is to present studies on such finds in order to facilitate dialogue, professional exchange and discussion on this multi-perspectival field of research.
No. Session title Organiser(s)


More than dating: re-evaluating coin finds in military contexts

Rahel Otte,
LVR-Amt für Bodendenkmalpflege im
Rheinland, Nideggen, Germany
Max Resch,
University of Vienna, Austria
Like shards of pottery and nails, coins are some of the most ubiquitous finds in the military sites along the limes. Thousands of Roman coins have been excavated in the past 200 years – some have been published, but enormous quantities still lie unidentified in museum depots. In recent years, several research projects have been started with the aim of (re)processing this material. These projects all share a modern methodology towards their material: updated numismatic catalogues, modern databases and standardized digital photography. However, they also face the same problems: enormous numbers of finds, sometimes in unrestored condition, coins lacking exact find spots or stratigraphic information, and discrepancies between published lists and the coins still available for study.
In this session we will talk about these common problems, potential pitfalls, and solutions for dealing with them. We will highlight the aims and benefits of the study of coins found in military contexts, focussing on current methods of recording and analysis. We will also discuss statistical techniques and methods of analysing spatial distribution patterns. This session also aims to illustrate the potential of these coins as sources for life on the frontier beyond the ability to date a findspot or to relate them to events described in written sources. Of particular interest are therefore questions concerning monetization, circulation patterns and military pay. What do the presented sites have in common? Can we observe differences between legionary and auxiliary camps? What is the relationship between the coin finds inside the military forts and the canabae? What can numismatics contribute to Roman military archaeology other than just dating a specific site?
Contributions on coin finds from legionary fortresses, auxiliary camps, canabae legionis and any other military contexts are welcome.
No. Session title Organiser(s)


Reconstructing Handicrafts on the Limes

Kaja Stemberger,
Flegar, PJP d.o.o.
Jason Lundock,
Full Sail University
As in any social environment, craft production was essential both inside the Roman Empire and on its borders. There is a great diversity of these goods from the Roman period, ranging from mass produced items that were manufactured on an industrial level and intended for wide distribution all the way to the handiwork of local workshops and households. While non-perishable and sometimes even perishable end products of crafts and the material means of production are preserved in the archaeological record, the know-how and techniques have to be reconstructed from ethnological sources, through reverse engineering, and in experimental terms with trial and error.
This panel seeks to open a discussion on the processes of ancient craft production and how it affected life on the Limes of the Roman world. Reconstructions will employ interdisciplinary approaches such as ethnology and ethno-archaeology, experimental archaeology, modern crafting techniques, re-enactment experience, and other methods in an effort to understand ancient craft making techniques. Broader issues such as space utilisation, procuring and storing ingredients, manufacturing of tools and the like shall also play an important role in our investigation.  The role of craftspeople within society, particularly within the context of the Roman military on the Limes, will also be addressed. Other topics related to crafts, such as the spreading of production techniques and the adoption of knowledge from inside and outside the Empire and across the Limes, will also be warmly welcomed.
No. Session title Organiser(s)


It’s all been done before.
Why re-evaluating 19th and 20th century excavations is worth it

Frances McIntosh,
English Heritage
Orsolya Lang,
Aquincum Museum
Many areas along the Trans-national Limes were discovered and excavated in the 19th- 20th century. Since then our understanding of the period, the development of science and the changes in archaeological research mean that the archives from these excavations are ripe for re-appraisal. Simply by delving into archive boxes (of paper or objects) can reveal fascinating new insights into life on the Limes in the Roman period. Sites which have perhaps been seen as ‘done’ due to publications by well known antiquarians or archaeologists can be shown to have many new layers to reveal. Despite detailed context being lacking from many early excavations, this did not exclude them from new research.  Some examples from the British frontier are Corbridge (Coria), where only 3 of the 60+ boxes of glass were included in the published report, or Newstead (Trimontium), which can now be studied in a wider context of structured deposition. It is a similar situation in Anquincum, Hungary where several old excavation documentation and related finds still await revaluation and where some of these works have recently already changed some topos on the history and topography of the Pannonian capital.
This session would hope to bring together scholars who understand the importance of going back to archives to re-analyse them within the 21st century.

Theme: Transport

No. Session title Organiser(s)


Via Nova: New Perspectives on the Roman Roads in the Roman Frontier Studies

Adam Pažout,
Centre for Urban Network Evolutions, Aarhus University
The Romans are known for their road building, skillfully developed for the needs of the army. The roads were among the first infrastructure projects built by the Romans in the newly conquered territories, forming the backbone of the military organization.  Nevertheless, little attention was given to the roads in the recent Limes Congresses. Where is the road research in the Roman frontier studies now? What are the pressing issues in Roman road research? Given the better, improved datasets that are available now, new methods and toolkits (especially digital) and growth of interdisciplinary approaches, what are the questions we may now attempt to answer which was not possible previously?
Moreover, we may ask, are the Roman frontiers special case in the road research, precisely because of the involvement of the Roman army in planning, building, and using the roads? The function of the roads goes beyond purely military needs, entailing topics such as the development of settlement patterns, means of transport, commerce, and economy. What impact did the Roman road building had on the micro- and macro-scale regional perspective in the frontiers? Is it markedly different from Italy and the provinces? Is the Roman impact on the road and transport infrastructure revolution or evolution?
This session aims to explore the perspectives of the road research in the Roman frontier studies and invites scholars to present novel, challenging research about topics such as:
• The shape of the Roman road system, its development and relation to pre-Roman roads
• Practicalities and development of the means of transport and transport system
• Synergies between road and waterborne traffic
• Organization of road building, maintenance, and transport
• Travel economies
• Impact of roads on the ancient landscapes and settlements
• New methods in the study of roads and transport
No. Session title Organiser(s)


The horses of Roman cavalry units / Die Pferde römischer Kavallerieeinheiten

Andreas Thiel,
Landesamt für Denkmalpflege im Regierungspräsidium Stuttgart
Thomas Becker,
Landesamt für Denkmalpflege Hessen, hessenArchäologie, Außenstelle Darmstadt
Cavalry units played an important role in controlling the frontiers of the Roman Empire. In the 2nd century there are 85 Alae, which make up a total of 46.500 horsemen. In addition, there are several partially mounted or mounted units (exploratores, numeri) as well as horsemen in the legions, so that a good 60.000 horses were in use in the Roman army at the same time. Stationing, equipment and deployment of these mobile units are comparatively well researched, but our knowledge about their most important and characteristic equipment, the horse, is rather poor. The session will address what we can say about the mounts used in cavalry units.
– What types of animals are detectable? Do the equids used or the population of mounts change over time? Are there differences between pure cavalry and partially mounted units?
– What do we know about the origin of the animals? Did the army resort to local horse breeds or did new horse types replace regionally existing breeds? Where can we find evidence of specialized horse breeding?
– What archaeological evidence do we have of how the supply of horses to the troops was organized? Are there any special settlements and economic structures in the vicinity of equestrian units that provide clues to the daily service of troops outside the forts.
– Horses require special nutrition and care in order to maintain their performance. Is there any evidence of special cultivation in the vicinity of the stationing sites? What is the research situation on specialized vets for cavalry units?
– What happened to the animals after their service ended? Are there any indications or records of the animals being passed on to civilians after their retirement from military service? Why are individual horses buried? What is the archaeozoological evidence?
– What can be deduced about the ancient situation from the tradition concerning modern cavalry units? Where are differences?
Reitertruppen spielten eine wichtige Rolle bei der Kontrolle der Grenzen der römischen Provinzen. Im 2. Jahrhundert lassen sich immerhin 85 Alae nachweisen, die einen Gesamtbestand von 46500 Reitern ergeben. Dazu kommen etliche teilberittene oder gesonderte Einheiten (exploratores, numeri) sowie Reiter in den Legionen, so dass gut 60.000 Pferde im römischen Heer gleichzeitig im Einsatz waren. Stationierung, Ausrüstung und Einsatz dieser mobilen Einheiten sind vergleichsweise gut erforscht, doch ist aktuell unser Kenntnisstand über ihr wichtigstes und charakteristisches Ausrüstungselement, das Pferd, eher schlecht. Die Sektion soll sich damit auseinandersetzen, was wir über die in den Reitertruppen eingesetzten Pferde sagen können.
– Welche Arten von Reittieren sind nachweisbar? Verändern sich die eingesetzten Equiden oder der Bestand an Reittieren im Laufe der Zeit? Gibt es Unterschiede bei den Tieren zwischen Kavallerie- und teilberittenen Einheiten?
– Was wissen wir über die Herkunft der Tiere? Griff man auf lokale Pferderassen zurück oder lösten unter römischer Besetzung neue Pferdetypen die vorher regional vorhandenen Rassen ab. Wo ist spezialisierte Pferdezucht nachweisbar?
– Welche archäologischen Hinweise gibt es darauf, wie die Versorgung der Truppe organisiert war? Gibt es im Umfeld größerer Reitereinheiten spezielle Siedlungs- und Wirtschaftsstrukturen, die Hinweise auf den Dienstalltag von Reitertruppen außerhalb der Kastelle erlauben.
– Pferde bedürfen einer speziellen Ernährung und Versorgung, um die Leistungsfähigkeit erhalten zu können. Liegen Hinweise auf spezielle Anbaubereiche im Umfeld der Stationierungsorte? Wie sieht die Forschungssituation zu spezialisierten Veterinären für die Kavallerieeinheiten aus?
– Was passierte mit den Tieren nach dem Ende ihres Dienstes? Gibt es Hinweise oder Überlieferung zur Weitergabe der Tiere an Zivilisten nach ihrer Ausmusterung aus dem Militärdienst? Warum werden einzelne Pferde bestattet? Wie sieht die archäozoologische Nachweismöglichkeit aus?
– Was kann aus der Überlieferung zur neuzeitlichen Kavallerieeinheiten über die antike Situation abgeleitet werden? Wo sind Unterschiede?
No. Session title Organiser(s)


The military and long-distance trade along the eastern Roman frontier

Craig A. Harvey,
University of Alberta
Emanuele E. Intagliata,
University of Milan
Rubina Raja,
Aarhus University
It is now well understood that the Roman military presence along the eastern frontier did not only have a defensive function but instead was motivated by several needs, including the control and policing of trading activities. The relationship between the military and long-distance trade has become increasingly visible in the archaeological record of the southern Levant. This is most evident at sites such as Khirbet al-Khalde in the Wadi Yitm or Moyat ‘Awad in the Negev, where caravanserais are situated next to forts. Surveys and excavations are contributing to a better understanding of those living in and passing through these sites, but more remains to be done to cast light on the relationship between the military and caravans along these routes.
The aim of this session is to explore the relationship between the military and long-distance trade in Roman borderlands. Papers in this multidisciplinary session will investigate this topic and present new and original research through the study of the archaeological record or ancient written sources. While focused on the eastern frontier between the Roman and Late Antique periods, comparative case studies from elsewhere in the Roman World are also welcome.
In bringing together international experts on this topic, the session aims to address the following questions:
• To what extent can the archaeological and historical record contribute to casting light on the interaction between long-distance trade and the military?
• What are the main problems that archaeologists have to face when dealing with this topic?
• How did this interaction change over the longue durée?
• How did global trends and geopolitical transitions affect this interaction?
No. Session title Organiser(s)


Troop movements in Dacia in the 3rd century AD

Ioan Piso,
Universitatea Babeș-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca, Romania
In the 3rd century the military diplomas are missing and so our documentation about the provincial armies is incomplete. At least four items will be examined. The first is the so-called «knock-on effect» in the case of the legions. Beginning with Septimius Severus legionary vexillations moved eastwards or westwards only the half distance to the front, replacing in Dacia legionary vexillations which moved further and reached the destination. It is, for example, the case of the legions III Italica, VII Gemina and III Gallica. The second problem dealt with is is the moving of auxiliary units throughout Dacia.
When a unit returned from an expedition, it could happen that it found its camp occupied and had to move into an another camp, which will be inaccessible for the first occupant and so on. Such a relationship existed between following cohorts: I Vindelicorum – I sagittariorum – III Campestris – I Ulpia Brittonum. Thirdly, we shall try to find out the newly founded units, like the mysterious ala electorum or the cohors VI nova Cumidavensium. Finally, we shall examine the contribution of Dacia to the mobile army organized by Gallienus.

Theme: General

No. Session title Organiser(s)


Roman and early Byzantine sites located at Ajara

Shota Mamuladze,
Adjara Cultural Heritage Protection Agency
Lasha Aslanishvili,
Adjara Cultural Heritage Protection Agency
Kakhaber Kamadadze,
Adjara Cultural Heritage Protection Agency
Mainly Apsarus excavations will be discussed as well as some accidental finds from surroundings: Makho, Zanakidzeebi, Kapandibi, etc. All these locations are very close distance from the fort of Apsarus and the traces of acculturation are noticed there.
No. Session title Organiser(s)


Roman and early Byzantine heritage of Iberia (Georgia)

Amiran Kakhidze,
Ajara Museums
Emzar Kakhidze,
Batumi Archaeological Museum
All main sites located at eastern Georgia will be discused. Espesially, capital of eastern Georgia Mtskheta as well as Bagineti, Dzalisi, Dedoplisgora, Dolochopi, etc. Here too mainly Roman acculturation on Iberia will be discussed.
No. Session title Organiser(s)


Roman provinces and frontiers in the studies of young researchers

Adrianna Gizińska,
Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology, University of Warsaw
Natalia Lockley,
Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology, University of Warsaw
Oskar Kubrak,
Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology, University of Warsaw
Session organized by (and for) young researchers, PhD students, and students. The main goal is to create a space for discussion about the challenges and opportunities faced by researchers at an early stage of their scientific path. It will be an opportunity to present the achievements of the young researchers in the study of Roman provinces and frontier (limes) studies, as well as the issues related to relations between barbarian and Roman world. Participation in the session will allow participants to share their study, research methods and methodological approach. It will also be an opportunity to enrich the knowledge and exchange experiences, both in the field of theoretical assumptions and their practical application as part of doctoral dissertations and grant projects. In addition, the meeting will deepen the integration and build an open space and wide network of  contacts between Young Specialists in the broadly understood archeology of Roman provinces.
The interdisciplinarity, and quite often multidisciplinary nature of modern archaeology of Roman provinces and frontier studies, opens up new possibilities, perspectives and fosters new challenges. Therefore, we encouraged not only archaeologists, but also young researchers from other disciplines who take into account archeological and historical sources in their research, participate in excavations in the areas of the Roman provinces and use methods appropriate to archaeology for analyzing and interpreting sources are encouraged to attend the session.
No. Session title Organiser(s)


General Session

A session for the various topics connected to the Frontiers of the Roman Empire not covered in any of the other sessions.

Poster sessions

No. Session title Organiser(s)

General poster session

Team of the 26. Limes Congress

Notable Limes scholars – celebrating 75 years of the Limes Congress

Rebecca Jones / Andreas Thiel